Men Becoming Fathers


To date, I have been involved in a number of projects focused on men becoming fathers. This includes research on transgender men and pregnancy, cisgender gay men and surrogacy, gay foster parents, and men who are primary caregivers to their children. My work on fathers who are primary caregivers largely focuses on representations of these fathers in the public sphere. This work about fathers who are primary caregivers was undertaken with Sarah Hunter, whose PhD thesis focused on media representations and self-presentations of primary caregiving fathers, and which we are now in the process of turning into a book for Routledge.

A full list of my research publications on the topic of fathers can be found further down the page, and are drawn on in the applications of research findings sections below.

Applications of research findings for practitioners

Our analysis of popular texts for and by primary caregiving fathers found that whilst on the surface these appear to promote primary caregiving fathers, they often draw on normative ideas to do this. The analysis found that fathers were framed as usually being financial providers, and thus discussed difficulties with giving up paid employment, and the status that goes with this. In several of the books, fathers were framed as being primary caregivers due to accident or circumstance and/or it being temporary. In addition, the fathers’ masculinity was asserted in other ways (e.g. drinking or sports), rather than via caregiving. When caregiving was discussed, it was framed in a masculine way, and unique from mothering, yet fathers were often positioned as inferior caregivers to mothers. These findings highlight the need for practitioners to provide continued support for all fathers in heterosexual relationships to have the chance to be involved as primary caregivers in their child(ren)’s lives.

The analysis of newspaper articles focused on primary caregiving fathers provided contradictory accounts. They advocated for primary caregiving fathers, compared the past and present, and discussed barriers to father involvement. Overall, whilst the articles promoted primary caregiving fathers in principle, they also justified continued inequalities in parenting due to practical considerations. The practical considerations drawn on in the articles were economic barriers (where ‘good’ fathers are positioned as financial providers), mothers behaving as ‘gatekeepers’, and struggles and difficulties. These findings have implications for practitioners, who need to consider the broader picture of structural gender inequality (including in terms of levels of pay for paid employment) and how this impacts on the possibilities for fathers to be primary carers.

Applications of research findings for (intending) parents and families

Our project on trans masculine people and pregnancy, led by Prof Sally Hines, is currently under way, and we expect to be able to report on findings in early 2020. In the meantime, the project website includes ample information about the study, including links to preliminary findings.

In terms of our analysis of popular texts for and by primary caregiving fathers, we found that they both promoted primary caregiving fathers, yet drew on normative ideas to do this. In particular, fathers were framed as usually being financial providers, and thus discussed difficulties with giving up paid employment, and the status that goes with this. In several of the books, fathers were framed as being primary caregivers due to accident or circumstance and/or it being temporary. Caregiving was framed in a masculine way, and unique from mothering, yet fathers were often positioned as inferior caregivers to mothers. These findings suggest that more fathers should consider how involved they want to be in their children’s lives, and how this is another valuable way of providing for their child that extends beyond finances. In addition, fathers could consider if they would choose to be primary caregivers, rather than only coming to this role due to circumstance (such as via job loss).

The analysis of newspaper articles focused on primary caregiving fathers provided contradictory accounts. Overall, whilst the articles promoted primary caregiving fathers in principle, they also justified continued inequalities in parenting due to practical considerations. The practical considerations drawn on in the articles were economic barriers (where ‘good’ fathers are positioned as financial providers), mothers behaving as ‘gatekeepers’, and struggles and difficulties. These findings highlight the need for fathers consider the broader picture of structural gender inequality (including in terms of levels of pay for paid employment) and how this impacts on their possibilities to be primary carers.

Resources for practitioners


Australian Psychological Society – Engaging fathers (by Lucy Tully)

The Bouverie Centre. (2012). Guidelines for healthcare providers working with same-sex parented families. Melbourne: The Bouverie Centre, La Trobe University.


Child Information Welfare Gateway (US) – Working with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) families in foster care and adoption

National Resource Center for Adoption, the National Resource Center for Permanency and Family Connections, and the National Resource Center for Recruitment and Retention of Foster and Adoptive Parents at AdoptUSKids (US) Strategies for recruiting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender foster, adoptive, and kinship families

Resources for (intending) fathers and families

Becoming a father – government sources

Pregnancy, birth & baby – Being a father (heterosexual couples)

Becoming a father – additional sources

Australian Psychological Society – Gay dads and surrogacy

Foster Care Association of Victoria – Support for gay and lesbian foster carers

Gay Dads Australia

Gay Parent magazine

Rainbow Families

Rainbow Families Council

Rainbow Families Queensland

Raising Children Network – Becoming a dad (heterosexual couples)

Stay at Home Dads Australia

Tomlins, J. (2015). OUTspoken families: Resource kit for rainbow families.

We are Family magazine


Bub Hub – Dads Chat

Bub Hub – Same sex parents

Essential Baby – Dad’s Zone

Essential Baby – Same-sex parents & parents-to-be (log in to access)


National At-Home Dad Network

NHS Choices (UK) – LGBT paths to parenthood

Books/sources with personal stories

Beatie, Thomas. (2008). Labor of love: The story of one man’s extraordinary pregnancy. Berkeley: Seal Press.

Benner, S. (2013). Life is short, laundry is eternal: Confessions of a stay-at-home dad. Ann Arbor, MI: Spry Publishing.

Bucatinsky, D. (2012). Does this baby make me look straight?: Confessions of a gay dad. New York: Simon &​ Schuster.

Byrnes, P. (2013). Captain dad: The manly art of stay-at-home parenting. Guilford, CT: Lyons Press.

Gay Dads Australia – David and Glen (surrogacy)

Greagen, C. (2014). Reservoir dad: He’s got it covered. Sydney: Bantam.

Gus. (2014). Big shoes to fill. In Z. Keig & M. Kellaway (Eds.), Manning up: Transsexual men on finding brotherhood, family and themselves (pp. 107–116). Oakland: Transgress Press.

Hirschi, H.M. (2014). Dads: A gay couple’s surrogacy journey in India. Seattle: Amazon Digital Services.

Kulp, A. (2013). Dad or alive: Confessions of an unexpected stay-at-home dad. New York: Penguin.

Mastin, M.J. (2010). Cinderfella: My life as a stay-at-home dad. New York, NY: Black Bird Literary Company.

Menichiello, M. (2012). A gay couple’s journey through surrogacy: Intended fathers. New York: Haworth Press.

Noonan, J. (2016). Life between naps: Stories from a full-time unemployed, stay-at-home dad. MorningNoonanNight Publishing.

Reservoir Dad

Robertson, B. (2012). Hear me roar: The story of a stay-at-home dad. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press.

Schatz, J. (2009). Daddy, where’s your vagina? What I learned as a stay-at-home dad. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation.

Picture books

Assisted Reproduction: Books for Children – Gay fathers

Sean Taylor, The Guardian – Top 10 dads in picture books

Shelley White, The Globe and Mail – Where are the stay at home dads in children’s picture books?

My research publications

Bartholomaeus, C., & Riggs, D.W. (Online First 2017). Intending fathers: Heterosexual men planning for a first childJournal of Family Studies.

Bartholomaeus, C., & Riggs, D.W. (2016). Homonormativity in representations of gay fathers on television: Reproductive citizenship, gender and intimacy. In R. Garrett, T. Jensen & A. Voela (Eds.), We need to talk about family: Essays on neoliberalism, the family and popular culture (pp. 157-176). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Due, C., Chiarolli, S., & Riggs, D.W. (2017). The impact of pregnancy loss on men’s health and wellbeing: A systematic review. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 17, 380.

Hunter, S.C., Augoustinos, M., & Riggs, D.W. (2017). Ideological dilemmas in accounts of primary caregiving fathers in Australian news media. Discourse, Context & Media, 20, 116-123.

Hunter, S. C., & Riggs, D. W. (2015). Hegemonic masculinities and heteronormativities in contemporary books on fathering and raising boys. Boyhood Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 8(1), 110-129.

Hunter, S.C., Riggs, D.W., & Augoustinos, M. (Online First, 2017). Constructions of primary caregiving fathers in popular parenting texts. Men and Masculinities.

Hunter, S., Riggs, D.W., & Augoustinos, M. (2017). Hegemonic vs. a caring masculinity: Implications for understanding primary caregiving fathersSocial and Personality Psychology Compass, 11(3), 1-9.

Riggs, D.W. (forthcoming). Diverse pathways to parenthood: From narratives to practice. Elsevier.

Riggs, D.W. (2018). Making matter matter: Meanings accorded to genetic material among Australian gay men. Reproductive Biomedicine and Society Online, 7, 150-157.

Riggs, D.W. (2014). What makes a man? Thomas Beatie, embodiment, and “mundane transphobia”Feminism and Psychology, 24(2), 157-171.

Riggs, D.W. (2013). Transgender men’s self-representations of bearing children post-transition. In Green, F. & Friedman, M. (Eds.) Chasing rainbows. Toronto: Demeter Press.

Riggs, D.W. (2012). Non-indigenous lesbians and gay men caring for Indigenous children: An Australian case study. In C. Phellas (Ed.) Researching non-heterosexual sexualities. Surrey: Ashgate.

Riggs, D.W. (2010). Pragmatic imbalances: Australian lesbian and gay foster carers. In. P Gerber & A. Sifris (Eds.), Current trends in the regulation of same-sex relationships. Annandale: Federation Press.

Riggs, D.W. (2008). All the boys are straight: Heteronormativity in contemporary books on fathering and raising boys. THYMOS: Journal of Boyhood Studies, 2(2), 186-202.

Riggs, D.W. (2007). Becoming parent: Lesbians, gay men, and family. Teneriffe, QLD: Post Pressed.

Riggs, D.W., Delfabbro, P.H. & Augoustinos, M. (2009). Foster fathers and carework: Enacting alternate forms of parentingFathering, 8(1)24-36.

Riggs, D.W. & Dempsey, D. (2015). Gay men’s narratives of pregnancy in the context of commercial surrogacy. In N. Burton (Ed.) Birth and its meanings: Representations of pregnancy, childbirth and parenting. Toronto: Demeter Press.

Riggs, D.W., & Due, C. (2017). Constructions of gay men’s reproductive desires on surrogacy clinic websites. In M. Davies (Ed.) Global babies: Transnational surrogacy and the new politics of reproduction. London: Zed Books.

Riggs, D.W. & Due, C. (2014). Gay fathers’ reproductive journeys and parenting experiences: A review of research. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 40(4), 289-293.

Riggs, D.W. & Due, C. (2010). Gay men, race privilege, and surrogacy in IndiaOutskirts: Feminisms Along the Edge, 22.

Riggs, D.W., Due, C. & Power, J. (2015). Gay men’s experiences of surrogacy clinics in India. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health, 41(1), 48-53.

Riggs, D.W., Due, C., & Tape, N. (Online First 2018). Australian heterosexual men’s experiences of pregnancy loss: The relationships between grief, psychological distress, stigma, help-seeking, and support. OMEGA: Journal of Death and Dying.

Riggs, D.W., & Peel, E. (2016). Critical kinship studies: An introduction to the field. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Riggs, D. W., Power, J., & von Doussa, H. (2016). Parenting and Australian trans and gender diverse people: An exploratory survey. International Journal of Transgenderism, 17(2), 59-65.

von Doussa, H., Power, J., & Riggs, D.W. (2015). Imagining parenthood: The possibilities and experiences of parenthood among transgender peopleCulture, Health & Sexuality, 17(9), 1119-1131.

Other research publications (selected)


Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). Persons not in the labour force, Australia, September 2013 (cat. no. 6220.0). Canberra: ABS.

Baxter, J. (2017). Stay-at-home dads (facts sheet). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Charter, R., Ussher, J. M., Perz, J., & Robinson, K. (2018). The transgender parent: Experiences and constructions of pregnancy and parenthood for transgender men in Australia. International Journal of Transgenderism, 19(1), 64-77.

Dempsey, D. (2012). Gay male couples’ paternal involvement in lesbian-parented families. Journal of Family Studies, 18(2-3), 155-164.

Dempsey, D. (2012). More like a donor or more like a father? Gay men’s concepts of relatedness to children. Sexualities, 15(2), 156-174.

Dempsey, D. (2013). Same-sex parented families in Australia (CFCA Paper No. 18). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.

Dempsey, D. (2013). Surrogacy, gay male couples and the significance of biogenetic paternity. New Genetics and Society, 32(1), 37-53.

Draper, J. (2002). “It’s the first scientific evidence”: Men’s experience of pregnancy confirmation. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 563-570.

Draper, J. (2002). “It was a real good show”: The ultrasound scan, fathers and the power of visual knowledge. Sociology of Health & Illness, 24(6), 771-795.

Draper, J. (2003). Men’s passage to fatherhood: An analysis of the contemporary relevance of transition theory. Nursing Inquiry, 10(1), 66-78.

Draper, J. (2003). Blurring, moving and broken boundaries: Men’s encounters with the pregnant body. Sociology of Health & Illness, 25(7), 743-767.

Grbich, C.F. (1987). Primary caregiver fathers—a role study: Some preliminary findings. Australian Journal of Sex, Marriage & Family, 8(1), 17-26.

Grbich, C.F. (1992). Societal response to familial role change in Australia: Marginalisation or social change? Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 23(1), 79-94.

Grbich, C. (1994). Women as primary breadwinners in families where men are primary caregivers. Journal of Sociology, 30(2), 105-118.

Grbich, C.F. (1995). Male primary caregivers and domestic labour: Involvement or avoidance? Journal of Family Studies, 1(2), 114-129.

Grbich, C.F. (1997). Male primary caregivers in Australia: The process of becoming and being. Acta Sociologica, 40(4), 335-355.

Lupton, D., & Barclay, L. (1997). Constructing fatherhood: Discourses and experiences. London, Thousand Oaks, and New Delhi: SAGE.

Murphy, D. A. (2013). The desire for parenthood: Gay men choosing to become parents through surrogacy. Journal of Family Issues, 34(8), 1104-1124.

Murphy, D.A. (2015). Gay men pursuing parenthood through surrogacy: Reconfiguring kinship. Sydney: UNSW Press.

Power, J., Perlesz, A., McNair, R., Schofield, M., Pitts, M., Brown, R., & Bickerdike, A. (2012). Gay and bisexual dads and diversity: Fathers in the Work, Love, Play study. Journal of Family Studies, 18(2-3), 143-154.

Russell, G. (1999). Primary caregiving fathers. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), Nontraditional families (2nd ed., pp. 35-52). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Stevens, E. (2015). Understanding discursive barriers to involved fatherhood: The case of Australian stay-at-home fathers. Journal of Family Studies, 21(1), 22-37.

Winter, J., & Pauwels, A. (2006). Men staying at home looking after their children: Feminist linguistic reform and social change. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 16(1), 16-36.


Averett, P., Nalavany, B., & Ryan, S. (2009). An evaluation of gay/lesbian and heterosexual adoption. Adoption Quarterly, 12(3-4), 129-151.

Baldwin, S., Malone, M., Sandall, J., & Bick, D. (2018). Mental health and wellbeing during the transition to fatherhood: A systematic review of first time fathers’ experiences. JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, 16(11), 2118-2191.

Bergman, K., Rubio, R. J., Green, R.-J., & Padrón, E. (2010). Gay men who become fathers via surrogacy: The transition to parenthood. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6(2), 111-141.

Berkowitz, D. (2013). Gay men and surrogacy. In A. E. Goldberg & K. R. Allen (Eds.), LGBT-parent families: Innovations in research and implications for practice (pp. 71-85). New York: Springer.

Bigner, J.J., & Jacobsen, R.B. (1989). The value of children to gay and heterosexual fathers. Journal of Homosexuality, 18(1-2), 163-172.

Bos, H.H.M.W. (2010). Planned gay father families in kinship arrangements. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 31(4), 356-371.

Brown, S., Smalling, S., Groza, V., & Ryan, S. (2009). The experiences of gay men and lesbians in becoming and being adoptive parents. Adoption Quarterly, 12(3-4), 229-246.

Burkstrand-Reid, B.A. (2012). Dirty Harry meets dirty diapers: Masculinities, at-home fathers, and making the law work for families. Texas Journal of Women & the Law, 22(1), 1-44.

Casper, L.M. (1997). My daddy takes care of me! Fathers as care providers. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.

Chesley, N. (2011). Stay-at-home fathers and breadwinning mothers: Gender, couple dynamics, and social change. Gender and Society, 25(5), 642-664.

Coltart, C., & Henwood, K. (2012). On paternal subjectivity: A qualitative longitudinal and psychosocial case analysis of men’s classed positions and transitions to first-time fatherhood. Qualitative Research, 12(1), 35-52.

Coskuner-Balli, G., & Thompson, C.J. (2013). The status costs of subordinate cultural capital: At-home fathers’ collective pursuit of cultural legitimacy through capitalizing consumption practices. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(1), 19-41.

Currah, P. (2008). Expecting bodies: The pregnant man and transgender exclusion from the employment non-discrimination act. Women’s Studies Quarterly, 36(3-4), 330-336.

Current-Juretschko, L., & Bigner, J.J. (2005). An exploratory investigation of gay stepfathers’ perceptions of their role. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 1(4), 1-20.

de Montigny Gauthier, P., & de Montigny, F. (2013). Conceiving a first child: Fathers’ perceptions of contributing elements to their decision. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 31(3), 274-284.

Dermott, E., & Gatrell, C. (Eds.). (2018). Fathers, families and relationships: Researching everyday lives. Bristol: Policy Press.

Doucet, A. (2004). “It’s almost like I have a job, but I don’t get paid”: Fathers at home reconfiguring work, care, and masculinity. Fathering, 2(3), 277-303.

Doucet, A. (2006). Do men mother?: Fathering, care, and domestic responsibility. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Doucet, A. (2006). “Estrogen-filled worlds”: Fathers as primary caregivers and embodiment. Sociological Review, 54(4), 696-716.

Doucet, A. (2009). Gender equality and gender differences: Parenting, habitus, and embodiment (the 2008 porter lecture). Canadian Review of Sociology, 46(2), 103-121.

Doucet, A., & Merla, L. (2007). Stay-at-home fathering: A strategy for balancing work and home in Canadian and Belgian families. Community, Work & Family, 10(4), 455-473.

Downing, J., Richardson, H., Kinkler, L., & Goldberg, A. (2009). Making the decision: Factors influencing gay men’s choice of an adoption path. Adoption Quarterly, 12(3), 247-271.

Dunn, M.G., Rochlen, A.B., & O’Brien, K.M. (2013). Employee, mother, and partner: An exploratory investigation of working women with stay-at-home fathers. Journal of Career Development, 40(1), 3-22.

Ellis, S. A., M.Wojnar, D., & Pettinato, M. (2015). Conception, pregnancy, and birth experiences of male and gender variant gestational parents: It’s how we could have a family. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 60(1), 62-69.

Epstein, R. (Ed.). (2009). Who’s your daddy? And other writings on queer parenting. Toronto, ON: Sumach Press.

Farr, R.H., & Patterson, C.J. (2009). Transracial adoption by lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples: Who completes transracial adoptions and with what results? Adoption Quarterly, 12(3-4), 187-204.

Farr, R.H., & Patterson, C.J. (2013). Coparenting among lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples: Associations with adopted children’s outcomes. Child Development, 84(4), 1226-1240.

Finn, M., & Henwood, K. (2009). Exploring masculinities within men’s identificatory imaginings of first-time fatherhood. British Journal of Social Psychology, 48(3), 547-562.

Fischer, J., & Anderson, V.N. (2012). Gender role attitudes and characteristics of stay-at-home and employed fathers. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 13(1), 16-31.

Fox, B. (2009). When couples become parents: The creation of gender in the transition to parenthood. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Fox, B. (2001). The formative years: How parenthood creates gender. Canadian Review of Sociology/Revue canadienne de sociologie, 38(4), 373-390.

Gaunt, R. (2013). Breadwinning moms, caregiving dads: Double standard in social judgments of gender norm violators. Journal of Family Issues, 34(1), 3-24.

Geiger, B. (1996). Fathers as primary caregivers. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Goldberg, A.E. (2012). Gay dads: Transitions to adoptive fatherhood. New York and London: New York University Press.

Goldberg, A.E., & Allen, K.R. (Eds.). (2013). LGBT-parent families: Innovations in research and implications for practice. New York: Springer.

Goldberg, A.E., Downing, J.B., & Moyer, A.M. (2012). Why parenthood, and why now? Gay men’s motivations for pursuing parenthood. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 61(1), 157-174.

Grunow, D., & Evertsson, M. (Eds.). (2016). Couples’ transitions to parenthood: Analysing gender and work in Europe. Cheltenham, Glos: Edward Elgar.

Henwood, K., & Procter, J. (2003). The “good father”: Reading men’s accounts of paternal involvement during the transition to first-time fatherhood. British Journal of Social Psychology, 42(3), 337-355.

Hicks, S. (2005). Lesbian and gay foster care and adoption: A brief UK history. Adoption & Fostering, 29(3), 42-56.

Hicks, S. (2005). Queer genealogies: Tales of conformity and rebellion amongst lesbian and gay foster carers and adopters. Qualitative Social Work: Research and Practice, 4(3), 293-308.

Hicks, S. (2006). Genealogy’s desire: Practices of kinship amongst lesbian and gay foster-carers and adopters. British Journal of Social Work, 36(5), 761-776.

Hicks, S. (2006). Maternal men–perverts and deviants? Making sense of gay men as foster carers and adopters. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 2(1), 93-114.

Kramer, K.Z., Kelly, E.L., & McCulloch, J.B. (2015). Stay-at-home fathers: Definition and characteristics based on 34 years of CPS data. Journal of Family Issues, 36(12), 1651-1673.

Latshaw, B.A. (2011). Is fatherhood a full-time job? Mixed methods insights into measuring stay-at-home fatherhood. Fathering, 9(2), 125-149.

Latshaw, B.A., & Hale, S.I. (2016). “The domestic handoff”: Stay-at-home fathers’ time-use in female breadwinner families. Journal of Family Studies, 22(2), 97-120.

Light, A. D., Obedin-Maliver, J., Sevelius, J. M., & Kerns, J. L. (2014). Transgender men who experienced pregnancy after female-to-male gender transitioning. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 124(6), 1120-1127.

Liong, M. (2017). Sacrifice for the family: Representation and practice of stay-at-home fathers in the intersection of masculinity and class in Hong Kong. Journal of Gender Studies, 26(4), 402-417.

Marshall, K. (1998). Stay-at-home dads. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 10(1), 9-15.

McCann, D. (2006). Stay at home dads: How fatherhood is evolving in Irish society. Master’s thesis, National University of Ireland Maynooth.

Medved, C.E. (2016). Stay-at-home fathering as a feminist opportunity: Perpetuating, resisting, and transforming gender relations of caring and earning. Journal of Family Communication, 16(1), 16-31.

Merla, L. (2008). Determinants, costs and meanings of Belgian stay-at-home fathers: An international comparison. Fathering, 6(2), 113-132.

Miller, T. (2011). Making sense of fatherhood: Gender, caring and work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Miller, T. (2017). Making sense of parenthood: Caring, gender and family lives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morison, T. (2013). Heterosexual men and parenthood decision making in South Africa: Attending to the invisible norm. Journal of Family Issues, 34(8), 1125-1144.

Morison, T., & Macleod, C. (2015). Men’s pathways to parenthood: Silence and heterosexual gendered norms. Cape Town: HSRC Press.

Patrick, D. (2006). The story of a gay foster parent. Child Welfare: Journal of Policy, Practice, and Program, 85(2), 123-132.

Petroski, D.J., & Edley, P.P. (2006). Stay-at-home fathers: Masculinity, family, work, and gender stereotypes. The Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue Electronic de Communication, 16(3-4).

Radin, N. (1988). Primary caregiving fathers of long duration. In P. Bronstein & C. P. Cowan (Eds.), Fatherhood today (pp. 127-143). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Radin, N. (1994). Primary-caregiving fathers in intact families. In A. E. Gottfried & A. W. Gottfried (Eds.), Redefining families. New York: Plenum Press.

Ranson, G. (2013). Who’s (really) in charge? Mothers and executive responsibility in ‘non-traditional’ families. Families, Relationships and Societies, 2(1), 79-95.

Roberts-Holmes, G.P. (2009). “People are suspicious of us”: A critical examination of father primary carers and English early childhood services. Early Years: An International Research Journal, 29(3), 281-291.

Rochlen, A.B., McKelley, R.A., Suizzo, M.-A., & Scaringi, V. (2008). Predictors of relationship satisfaction, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction among stay-at-home fathers. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 9(1), 17-28.

Rochlen, A.B., McKelley, R.A., & Whittaker, T.A. (2010). Stay-at-home fathers’ reasons for entering the role and stigma experiences: A preliminary report. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 11(4), 279-285.

Rochlen, A.B., Suizzo, M.-A., McKelley, R.A., & Scaringi, V. (2008). “I’m just providing for my family”: A qualitative study of stay-at-home fathers. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 9(4), 193-206.

Smith, C.D. (1998). ”Men don’t do this sort of thing”: A case study of the social isolation of househusbands. Men and Masculinities, 1(2), 138-172.

Solomon, C.R. (2017). The lives of stay-at-home fathers: Masculinity, carework and fatherhood in the United States. Bingley: Emerald.

Tornello, S.L., Farr, R.H., & Patterson, C.J. (2011). Predictors of parenting stress among gay adoptive fathers in the United States. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(4), 591-600.

Tornello, S.L., & Patterson, C.J. (2012). Gay fathers in mixed-orientation relationships: Experiences of those who stay in their marriages and of those who leave. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 8(1), 85-98.

West, A.F., Lewis, S., Ram, B., Barnes, J., Leach, P., Sylva, K., . . . FCCC project team. (2009). Why do some fathers become primary caregivers for their infants? A qualitative study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35(2), 208-216.

Zimmerman, T.S. (2000). Marital equality and satisfaction in stay-at-home mother and stay-at-home father families. Contemporary Family Therapy, 22(3), 337-354.

Zimmerman, T.S., Northen, L.P., Seng, S.C., & Grogan, J.W. (1999). Marital equality when fathers stay at home. Initiatives, 59(1), 45-63.